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More information on InterVA

As well as the information you can find on this site, there are a number of peer-reviewed scientific publications describing various aspects of InterVA. Details of these are shown below.


  1. Byass P, Huong DL, Minh HV. A probabilistic approach to interpreting verbal autopsies: methodology and preliminary validation in Vietnam. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health (2003), 31(Suppl.62):32-37. Pubmed link
  2. Byass P, Fottrell E, Huong DL, Berhane Y, Corrah T, Kahn K, Muhe L, Van DD. Refining a probabilistic model for interpreting verbal autopsy data. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health (2006), 34(1):26-31.  Pubmed link
  3. Fantahun M, Fottrell E, Berhane Y, Wall S, Högberg U, Byass P. Assessing a new approach to verbal autopsy interpretation in a rural Ethiopian community: the InterVA model. Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2006), 84:204-210.  Additional data on age-specific causes of death are available for download here in PDF format.
  4. Fottrell E, Byass P, Ouedraogo T, Tamini C, Gbangou A, Sombie I, Hogberg U, Witten K, Bhattacharya S, Desta T, Deganus S, Tornui J, Fitzmaurice A, Meda N, Graham W. Revealing the burden of maternal mortality: a probabilistic model for determining pregnancy-related causes of death from verbal autopsies. Population Health Metrics (2007) 5:1
  5. Baiden F, Bawah A, Biai S, Binka F, Boerma T, Byass P, Chandramohan D, Chatterji S, Engmann C, Dieltiens G, Jakob R, Kahn K, Kunii O, Lopez A, Murray CJL, Nahlen B, Rao C, Sankoh O, Setel PW, Shibuya K, Soleman N, Yang G. Setting international standards for verbal autopsy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2007) 85:570-571.
  6. Byass P. Who needs cause-of-death data? PLoS Medicine (2007) 4:(11) e333
  7. Fottrell E. Dying to Count. PhD Thesis, University of Umeå Explores aspects of verbal autopsy interpretation as well as other issues relating to population-based mortality surveillance.
  8. Bell JS, Ouedraogo M, Ganaba R, Sombie I, Byass P, Baggaley RF, Filippi V, Fitzmaurice AE, Graham WJ. The epidemiology of pregnancy outcomes in rural Burkina Faso. Tropical Medicine and International Health (2008) 13 suppl 1:31-43. Pubmed link
  9. Fottrell E. Dying to count: mortality surveillance in resource-poor settings. Global Health Action (2009) DOI:10.3402/gha.v2i0.1926
  10. Byass P, D'Ambruoso L, Ouedraogo M, Qomariyah SN. Assessing the repeatability of verbal autopsy for determining cause of death: two case studies among women of reproductive age in Burkina Faso and Indonesia. Population Health Metrics (2009) 7:6.
  11.  WHO Global Malaria Programme. Deployment at community level of artemether-lumefantrine and rapid diagnostic tests, Raya Valley, Tigray, Ethiopia. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2009. ISBN 978 92 4 159837 8.
  12.  Lemma H, Byass P, Desta A, Bosman A, Constanzo G, Toma L, Fottrell E, Marrast AC, Ambachew Y, Getachew A, Mulure N, Morrone A, Bianchi A, Barnabas GA.  Deploying artemether-lumefantrine with rapid testing in Ethiopian communities: impact on malaria morbidity, mortality and healthcare resources. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2010 15:241-250.
  13. Tensou B, Araya T, Telake DS, Byass P, Berhane Y, Kebebew T, Sanders EJ, Reniers G. Evaluating the InterVA model for determining AIDS mortality from verbal autopsies in the adult population of Addis Ababa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2010 15:547-553.
  14. Fottrell E, Byass P. Verbal Autopsy – methods in transition. Epidemiologic Reviews 2010; 32:38-55 doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxq003
  15. Oti S, Kyobutungi C. Verbal autopsy intepretation: a comparative analysis of the InterVA model versus physician review in determining causes of death in the Nairobi DSS. Population Health Metrics (2010) 8:21
  16. Fottrell E, Kahn K, Ng N, Sartorius B, Huong DL, Minh HV, Fantahun M, Byass P. Mortality measurement in transition: proof of principle for standardised multi-country comparisons. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2010 15:1256-65.
  17. Byass P, Kahn K, Fottrell E, Collinson MA, Tollman SM. Moving from data on deaths to public health policy in Agincourt, South Africa: Approaches to analysing and understanding verbal autopsy findings. PLoS Medicine 2010 7(8): e1000325.
  18. Byass P. The democratic fallacy in matters of clinical opinion: implications for analysing cause-of-death data. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2011; 8:1.
  19. Byass P. Whither verbal autopsy? Population Health Metrics (2011) 9:23
  20. Vergnano S, Fottrell E, Osrin D, Kazembe PN, Mwansambo C, Manandhar DS, Munjanja SP, Byass P, Lewycka S, Costello A. Adaptation of a probabilistic method (InterVA) of verbal autopsy to improve the interpretation of cause of stillbirth and neonatal death in Malawi, Nepal, and Zimbabwe. Population Health Metrics (2011), 9:48
  21. Bauni E, Ndila C, Mochamah G, Nyutu G, Matata L, Ondieki C, Mambo B, Mutinda M, Tsofa B, Maitha E, Etyang A, Williams TN. Validating physician-certified verbal autopsy and probabilistic modeling (InterVA) approaches to verbal autopsy interpretation using hospital causes of adult deaths.  Population Health Metrics (2011) 9:49
  22. Lozano R, Freeman MK, James SL, Campbell B, Lopez AD, Flaxman AD, Murray CJL, the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium.Performance of InterVA for assigning causes of death to verbal autopsies: multisite validation study using clinical diagnostic gold standards.   Population Health Metrics (2011) 9:50
  23. Herbst AJ, Mafojane T, Newell M-L. Verbal autopsy-based cause-specific mortality trends in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2000-2009.  Population Health Metrics (2011) 9:47
  24. Byass P, Kahn K, Fottrell E, Mee P, Collinson MA, Tollman SM. Using verbal autopsy to track epidemic dynamics: the case of HIV-related mortality in South Africa. Population Health Metrics (2011) 9:46
  25. Fottrell E, Kahn K, Tollman S, Byass P. Probabilistic Methods for Verbal Autopsy Interpretation: InterVA Robustness in Relation to Variations in A Priori Probabilities. PLoS ONE (2011) 6(11): e27200.
  26. Ferri CP, Acosta D, Guerra M, Huang Y, Llibre-Rodriguez JJ, Salas A, Sosa AL, Williams JD, Gaona C, Liu Z, Noreiga-Fernandez L, Jotheeswaram AT, Prince MJ. Socioeconomic factors and all cause and cause-specific mortality among older people in Latin America, India and China: a population-based cohort study. PLoS Med 9(2): e1001179.
  27. Rankin JC, Lorenz E, Neuhann F, Yé M, Sié A, Becher H, Ramroth H. Exploring the role narrative free-text plays in discrepancies between physician coding and the InterVA regarding determination of malaria as cause of death, in a malaria holo-endemic region. Malar J. 2012;11:51.
  28. Ramroth H, Lorenz E, Rankin JC, Fottrell E, Yé M, Neuhann F, Ssennono M, Sié A, Byass P, Becher H. Cause of death distribution with InterVA and physician coding in a rural area of Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 2012; 17:904.
  29. Fottrell E, Tollman S, Byass P, Golooba-Mutebi F, Kahn K. The epidemiology of ‘bewitchment’ as a lay-reported cause of death in rural South Africa. Journal of epidemiology and community health 66 (8), 704-709.
  30. Byass P, Chandramohan D, Clark SJ, D'Ambruoso L, Fottrell E, Graham WJ, Herbst AJ, Hodgson A, Hounton S, Kahn K, Krishnan A, Leitao J, Odhiambo F, Sankoh OA, Tollman SM. Strengthening standardised interpretation of verbal autopsy data: the new InterVA-4 tool. Global Health Action. 2012; 5:19281.
  31. Tadesse S, Tadesse TEvaluating the performance of interpreting Verbal Autopsy 3.2 model for establishing pulmonary tuberculosis as a cause of death in Ethiopia: a population-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1039.
  32. Bird J, Byass P, Kahn K, Mee P, Fottrell E. A matter of life and death: practical and ethical constraints in the development of a mobile verbal autopsy tool. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2013.
  33. Fottrell E, Azad K, Kuddus A, Younes L, Shaha S, Nahar T, Aumon BH, Hossen M, Beard J, Hossain T, Pulkki-Brannstrom AM, Skordis-Worrall J, Prost A, Costello A, Houweling TA.The Effect of Increased Coverage of Participatory Women's Groups on Neonatal Mortality in Bangladesh: A Cluster Randomized Trial. JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167:816-825. 

  34. Iwamoto A, Seward N, Prost A, Ellis M, Copas A, Fottrell E, Azad K, Tripathy P, Costello A. Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based study in South Asia. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2013; 13:245. 

  35. Leitao J, Chandramohan D, Byass P, Jakob R, Bundhamcharoen K, Choprapawon C, de Savigny D, Fottrell E, França E, Frøen F, Gewaifel G, Hodgson A, Hounton S, Kahn K, Krishnan A, Kumar V, Masanja H, Nichols E, Notzon F, Rasooly MH, Sankoh O, Spiegel P, AbouZahr C, Amexo M, Kebede D, Alley WS, Marinho F, Ali M, Loyola E, Chikersal J, Gao J, Annunziata G, Bahl R, Bartolomeus K, Boerma T, Ustun B, Chou D, Muhe L, Mathai M. Revising the WHO verbal autopsy instrument to facilitate routine cause-of-death monitoring. Glob Health Action. 2013; 6:21518.

  36. Fottrell E, Högberg U, Ronsmans C, Osrin D, Azad K, Nair N, Meda N, Ganaba R, Goufodji S, Byass P, Filippi V. A probabilistic method to estimate the burden of maternal morbidity in resource-poor settings: preliminary development and evaluation. Emerging Themes in Epidemiology 2014; 11:3.

  37. Tadesse S. Validating the InterVA model to estimate the burden of mortality from verbal autopsy data: a population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS ONE 2013; 8:e73463.
  38. Byass P, Calvert C, Miiro-Nakiyingi J, Lutalo T, Michael D, Crampin A, Gregson S, Takazura A, Robertson L, Herbst K, Tood J, Zaba B. InterVA-4 as a public health tool for measuring HIV/AIDS mortality: a validation study from five African countries. Global Health Action 2013; 6:22448.

  39. Oti SO, Wamukoya M, Mahy M, Kyobutungi C. InterVA versus Spectrum: how comparable are they in estimating AIDS mortality patterns in Nairobi's informal settlements? Global Health Action 2013; 6:21638.
  40. Kanjala C, Michael D, Todd J, Slaymaker E, Calvert C, Isingo R, Wringe A, Zaba B, Urassa M. Using HIV-attributable mortality to assess the impact of antiretroviral therapy on adult mortality in rural Tanzania. Global Health Action 2014; 7:21865.  

  41. Glynn JR, Calvert C, Price A, Chihana M, Kachiwanda L, Mboma S, Zaba B, Crampin AC. Measuring causes of adult mortality in rural northern Malawi over a decade of change. Global Health Action 2014; 7:23621

  42. Todd J, Slaymaker E, Mahy M, Byass P, Zaba B. Measuring HIV-related mortality in the first decade of anti-retroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Global Health Action 2014; 7:24787.
  43. Murray CJ, Lozano R, Flaxman AD, Serina P, Phillips D, Stewart A, James SL, Vahdatpour A, Atkinson C, Freeman MK, Ohno SL, Black R, Ali SM, Baqui AH, Dandona L, Dantzer E, Darmstadt GL, Das V, Dhingra U, Dutta A, Fawzi W, Gómez S, Hernández B, Joshi R, Kalter HD, Kumar A, Kumar V, Lucero M, Mehta S, Neal B, Praveen D, Premji Z, Ramírez-Villalobos D, Remolador H, Riley I, Romero M, Said M, Sanvictores D, Sazawal S, Tallo V, Lopez AD. Using verbal autopsy to measure causes of death: the comparative performance of different methods. BMC Medicine 2014; 9:5.
  44. Leitao J, Desai N, Aleksandrowicz L, Byass P, Miasnikof P, Tollman S, Alam D, Lu Y, Rathi SK, Singh A, Suraweera W, Ram F, Jha P. Comparison of pyhsician-certified verbal autopsy with computer-coded verbal autopsy for cause of death assignment in hospitalized patients in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Medicine 2014; 9:22
  45. Byass P. Usefulness of the Population Health Metrics Research Consortium gold standard verbal autopsy data for general verbal autopsy methods. BMC Medicine 2014;12:23.
  46. Garenne M. Prospects for automated diagnosis of verbal autopsies. BMC Medicine 2014; 12:18.
  47. Desai N, Aleksandrowicz L, Miasnikof P, Lu Y, Leitao J, Byass P, Tollman S, Mee P, Alam D, Rathi SK, Singh A, Kumar R, Ram F, Jha P. Performance of four computer-coded verbal autopsy methods for cause of death assignment compared with physician coding on 24,000 deaths in low- and middle-income countries.  BMC Medicine 2014; 12:20.
  48. Ndila C, Bauni E, Nyirongo V, Mochamah G, Makazi A, Kosgei P, Nyutu G, Macharia A, Kapesa S, Byass P, Williams TN. Verbal autopsy as a tool for identifying children dying of sickle cell disease: a validation study conducted in Kilifi district, Kenya.  BMC Medicine 2014; 12:65.
  49. Mee P, Collinson MA, Madhaven S, Dowling Root E, Tollman SM, Byass P, Kahn K. Evidence for localised HIV related micro–epidemics associated with the decentralised provision of antiretroviral treatment in rural South Africa: a spatio–temporal analysis of changing mortality patterns (2007–2010). Journal of Global Health 2014; 4:010403.
  50. Houle B, Clark SJ, Gomez-Olive FX, Kahn K, Tollman SM. The unfolding counter-transition in rural South Africa: mortality and cause of death, 1994-2009. PLoS ONE 2014; 9:e96447.
  51. Tadesse S. Agreement between physicians and the InterVA-4 model in assigning causes of death: the role of recall period and characteristics specific to the deceased and the respondent.  Archives of Public Health 2013; 71:28.
  52. Desai M, Buff AM, Khagayi S, Byass P, Amek N, van Eijk A, Slutsker L, Vulule J, Odhiambo FO, Phillips-Howard PA, Lindblade KA, Laserson KF, Hamel MJ. Age-specific malaria mortality rates in the KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Western Kenya, 2003-2010.  PLoS ONE 2014; 9:e106197.
  53. Godefay H, Abrha A, Kinsman J, Myleus A, Byass P. Undertaking cause-specific mortality measurement in an unregistered population: an example from Tigray Region, Ethiopia. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25264.
  54. Boerma T. Moving towards better cause of death registration in Africa and Asia. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25931.
  55. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Alam N, Sié A, Soura AB, et al. Cause-specific mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25362.
  56. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SMA, Alam N, Ouattara M, et al. Cause-specific childhood mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25363.
  57. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SMA, Alam N, Bagagnan CH, et al. Adult non-communicable disease mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25365.
  58. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SMA, Alam N, Diboulo E, et al. Mortality from external causes in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25366.
  59. Streatfield PK, Alam N, Compaoré Y, Rossier C, Soura AB, Bonfoh B, et al. Pregnancy-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25368.
  60. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SMA, Alam N, Diboulo E, et al. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25369.
  61. Streatfield PK, Khan WA, Bhuiya A, Hanifi SMA, Alam N, Millogo O, et al. HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25370.
  62. Sankoh O, Byass P. Cause-specific mortality at INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System Sites in Africa and Asia: concluding synthesis. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25590.
  63. Alam N, Chowdhury HR, Ahmed A, Rahman M, Streatfield PK. Distribution of cause of death in rural Bangladesh during 2003-2010: evidence from two rural areas within Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25510.
  64. Soura AB, Lankoandé B, Millogo R, Bangha M. Comparing causes of death between formal and informal neighbourhoods in urban Africa: evidence from Ouagadougou Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25523.
  65. Weldearegawi B, Spigt M, Melaku YA, Dinant GJ. Applying the InterVA-4 model to determine causes of death in rural Ethiopia. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25550.
  66. Jasseh M, Howie S, Gomez P, Scott S, Roca A, Cham M, et al. Disease-specific mortality burdens in a rural Gambian population using verbal autopsy, 1998-2007. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25598.
  67. Awini E, Sarpong D, Manyeh A, Adjei A, Manyeh A, Amu A, et al. Estimating causes of adult (15+ years) death using InterVA-4 in a rural district of Southern Ghana. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25543.
  68. Rai SK, Kant S, Misra P, Srivastava R, Pandav CS. Cause of death during 2009-2012 using a probabilistic model (InterVA-4): an experience from Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System in India. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25573.
  69. Ndila C, Bauni E, Mochamah G, Nyirongo V, Makazi A, Kosgei P, et al. Causes of death among persons of all ages within the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Kenya, determined from verbal autopsies interpreted using the InterVA-4 model. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25593.
  70. Amek NO, Odhiambo FO, Khagayi S, Moige H, Orwa G, Hamel MJ, et al. Childhood cause-specific mortality in rural Western Kenya: application of the InterVA-4 model. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25581.
  71. Oti SO, van de Vijver S, Kyobutungi C. Trends in non-communicable disease mortality among adult residents in Nairobi's slums, 2003-2011: applying InterVA-4 to verbal autopsy data. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25533.
  72. Kabudula CW, Tollman S, Mee P, Ngobeni S, Silaule B, Gómez-Olivé FX, et al. Two decades of mortality change in rural northeast South Africa. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25596.
  73. Mossong J, Byass P, Herbst K. Who died of what in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a cause of death analysis using InterVA-4. Global Health Action 2014; 7:25496.
  74. Phillips-Howard PA, Laserson KF, Amek N, Beynon CM, Angell SY, Khagayi S, Byass P, Hamel MJ, van Eijk AM, Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Slutsker L, De Cock KM, Vulule J, Odhiambo FO. Deaths ascribed to non-communicable diseases among rural Kenyan Adults are proportionately increasing: evidence from a health and demographic surveillance system 2003-2010. PLoS ONE 2014; 9:e114010.
  75. Mee P, Wagner RG, Gómez-Olivé FX, Kabudula C, Kahn K, Madhavan S, Collinson M, Byass P, Tollman SM. Changing use of traditional healthcare amongst those dying of HIV related disease and TB in rural South Africa from 2003 - 2011: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014; 14:504.
  76. Godefay H, Byass P, Kinsman J, Mulugeta A. Understanding maternal mortality from top-down and bottom-up perspectivesL Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia. J Global Health 2015; 5:010404.
  77. Byass P, Herbst K, Fottrell E, Ali MM, Odhiambo F, Amek N, Hamel MJ, Laserson KF, Kahn K, Kabudula C, Mee P, Bird J, Jakob R, Sankoh O, Tollman SM. Comparing verbal autopsy cause of death findings as determined by physician coding and probabilistic modelling: a public health analysis of 54 000 deaths in Africa and Asia. J Global Health 2015; 5:010402
  78. Mberu B, Wamukoya M, Oti S, Kyobutungi C. Trends in causes of adult deaths among the urban poor: evidence from Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System 2003-2012. J Urban Health 2015; 92:422-45
  79. Koné S, Fürst T, Jaeger FN, Esso EL, Baïkoro N, Kouadio KA, Adiossan LG, Zouzou F, Boti LI, Tanner M, Utzinger J, Bonfoh B, Dao D, N'Goran EK. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011. Global Health Action 2015; 8:27271
  80. Fottrell E, Osrin D, Alcock G, Azad K, Bapat U, Beard J, Bondo A, Colbourn T, Das S, King C, Manandhar D, Manandhar S, Morrison J, Mwansambo C, Nair N, Nambiar B, Neuman M, Phiri T, Saville N, Sen A, Seward N, Shah Moore N, Shrestha BP, Singini B, Tumbahangphe KM, Costello A, Prost A. Cause-specific noenatal mortality: analysis of 3772 neonatal deaths in Nepal, Bangladesh, Malawi and India. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2015; 100:F439-47
  81. Weldearegawi B, Melaku YA, Dinant GJ, Spigt M. How much do the physician review and InterVA model agree in determining causes of death? A comparative analysis of deaths in rural Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2015: 15:669
  82. Hussain-Alkhateeb L, Fottrell E, Petzold M, Kahn K, Byass P. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death. Global Health Action 2015; 8:28302
  83. Otte Im Kampe E, Müller O, Sie A, Becher H. Seasonal and temporal trends in all-cause and malaria mortality in rural Burkina Faso 1998-2007. Malaria Journal 2015; 14:300
  84. Byass P. Causes of child death estimates: making use of the InterVA model. Lancet 2015; 386:953
  85. Byass P, Kabudula CW, Mee P, Ngobeni S, Silaule B, Gómez-Olivé FX, Collinson MA, Tugendhaft A, Wagner RG, Twine R, Hofman K, Tollman SM, Kahn K. A Successful Failure: Missing the MDG4 Target for Under-Five Mortality in South Africa. PLoS Med 2015; 12:e1001926
  86. Byass P. Uncounted causes of death. Lancet 2016; 387:26-27
  87. King C, Zamawe C, Banda M, Bar-Zeev N, Beard J, Bird J, Costello A, Kazembe P, Osrin D, Fottrell E; VacSurv Consortium. The quality and diagnostic value of open narratives in verbal autopsy: a mixed-methods analysis of partnered interviews from Malawi. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2016; 16:13.
  88. Godefay H, Kinsman J, Admasu K, Byass P. Can innovative ambulance transport avert pregnancy-related deaths? One-year operational assessment in Ethiopia. J Global Health 2016; 6:010410
  89. Mee P, Kahn K, Kabudula CW, Wagner RG, Gómez-Olivé FX, Madhavan S, Collinson MA, Tollman SM, Byass P. The development of a localised HIV epidemic and the assciated excess mortality burden in a rural area of South Africa. Global Health, Epidemiology and Genomics 2016; 1:e7